M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology Curriculum: Introduction, Contents, Major Subjects and Recommended Books

M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology Curriculum Introduction, Contents, Major Subjects and Recommended Books

Introduction of M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology is a specialization course pertaining to the clinical-based study of microorganisms like bacteria, virus, fungus, parasites and their genetics, molecular techniques, serology or immunology, public health concern issues, etc. It is a post-graduation course and eligible graduation courses are BMLT, B.Sc. MLT, B.Sc. Medical Microbiology, B.Sc Microbiology, MBBS, BDS, BVSc, and AH. M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology Curriculum may change according to time and as a sample Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Institute of Medicine belonging to Tribhuvan University Curriculum is taken.

Course Contents of M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology course contents are described as follows:

Contents                   

1. Introduction:   

1.1 General Introduction

1.2 Eligibility Criteria

1.3 Duration of Programme

1.4 Selection Criteria

2. Goal  

3. Objectives

3.1 Knowledge

3.2 Skills

4. Academic Program   

4.1 Teaching/Learning Methods

4.2 Theory

4.3 Practical (Skills)

4.4 Rotation Schedule in the Laboratory (for Whole 3 Years)

4.5 Training in Research Methodology

4.6 Teaching Experience

5. Attendance Requirements 

6. Grading System

7. Award of Degree 

8. Program Coordinator

9. Evaluation

10. Other Rules

11. Course Structure 

12. Papers    and Subjects                                       

Papers I. General Microbiology and Immunology 

Paper-II. Bacteriology and Virology 

Paper III. Parasitology and Mycology 

Paper IV. Procedure and Systemic Bacteriology          

Paper IV. Procedure and Systemic Parasitology 

Paper V. Advance Technique in Bacteriology 

Paper V. Advance Technique in Parasitology 

Practical (Skills)

1. Introduction

1.1 General Introduction

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) was established in 1972 as part of the implementation of a new education system. At present, IOM is training health personnel of different categories (Certificate, Bachelor and Post Graduate level) through the various campuses. Institute of Medicine is aiming to produce highly qualified graduates and subsequently to promote research excellence in a free and scholastic environment as well as make a valuable contribution to medical treatment and people’s health.

Laboratory medicine is one of the fascinating branches of Medical Sciences, without which medical science remains incomplete. In view of this fact, the IOM was running certificate level in laboratory medicine (Health Laboratory) since its establishment in 1972. According to the understanding of needs of more qualified laboratory medicine personnel, IOM had started Bachelor in Medical Laboratory Technology (BMLT) of two academic years in 1987. From 1996 onwards, the BMLT course was reviewed and made into three academic year’s courses with a batch of six students. The circumstances have been changed after fourteen years of the successful running of this program. Master in Medical Laboratory Technology (MMLT) in Microbiology was started in 2005 to strengthen the laboratory service by producing qualified academic and technically sound human resources in view to develop expertise in teaching and research in the field of medical microbiology. This program was renamed as M.Sc. MLT Microbiology in 2008 for its global recognition and recently it is named as M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology in 2012. Medical Laboratory Science has rapidly developed in recent years and become very vast. The existing curriculum further needs the inclusion of new topics in recent advances in the present course of Microbiology to strengthen the knowledge and skill of professionals in this field.

The main aim of this course is to train students in the field of Clinical Microbiology. Theoretical, as well as practical training, is imparted to the candidates in sub-specialties viz. Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology, Immunology, Mycology, and Molecular microbiology so that they can independently investigate and develop expertise in the diagnosis and prevention of infectious diseases in the community. They are introduced to basic research methodology so that they can conduct fundamental and applied researches. They are equally imparted training in teaching

methods in the subject which may enable them to take up teaching assignments in Medical Colleges/Institutes.

1.2 Eligibility Criteria for M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

BMLT, B.Sc. MLT, B.Sc. Medical Microbiology, B.Sc Microbiology, MBBS, BDS, BVSc, and AH

1.3 Duration of M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology Program

Three academic years.

1.4  Selection Criteria

Selection will be done on a merit basis as per the rule of IOM, TU.

2. Goal

The goal of this postgraduate academic program is to produce competent specialists, academicians,s, and researchers in the field of Medical Microbiology and infectious diseases who will be able to:

  • Perform all Microbiological investigations as a specialist and correlate the findings with clinical diagnosis.
  • Establish good clinical Microbiological services in the field of bacteriology, virology, parasitology, immunology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and molecular microbiology that are required to be practiced at the secondary and the tertiary levels of the health care delivery system.
  • Acquire the basic skills of teaching in the field of Medical Microbiology for undergraduate and postgraduate medical and paramedical students.
  • Conduct and supervise the Hospital and Field-based research activities in the area of infectious diseases.
  • Recognize the health needs of the community and carry out professional obligations ethically in keeping with the objectives of the national health policy.
  • Aware of the contemporary advances and developments in Microbiology.

3. Objectives of M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

3.1. Knowledge

At the end of the course the students should be able to:

  1. State the clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, and methods of laboratory diagnosis and contribute that knowledge in the treatment, prevention, and control of communicable diseases caused by micro-organisms.
  2. State the principles of immunity and immunological phenomenon which help to understand the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious diseases.
  3. Establish and practice “laboratory medicine” for diagnosis of infectious diseases in hospitals and communities in the field of bacteriology, virology parasitology, mycology, immunology, mycobacteriology, and molecular microbiology.
  4. Implement infection prevention and safety measures in the laboratory.
  5. Organize the prevention and control program related to communicable diseases in the community.
  6. State the recent advances in the field of Medical Microbiology and apply this knowledge in understanding etiopathogenesis and diagnosis of diseases caused by micro-organisms.
  7. Carry out fundamental or applied research in the branches of medicine involving microbiological work.
  8. Develop specialization in any of the above sub-specialties.
  9. Undertake teaching assignments in the subject of Microbiology
  10. Obtain knowledge regarding the utilization of laboratory animals for disease diagnosis and microbiological research.
  11. Write the research proposal, analyze the data, and use the research tools required to be applied in research articles writing and publishing.
  12. Discuss the concepts of quality assurance and its implementation in quality development.
  13. State the concepts of vaccine preparation, their implications, and adverse reactions that will help to generate ideas in the search for newer vaccines.

3.2. Skills after completion of M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

  1. Plan the laboratory investigations for the diagnosis of infectious diseases.
  2. Perform laboratory procedures for the etiological diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites.
  3. Perform different immunological, serological, and molecular tests and interpret their results.
  4. Operate simple and sophisticated instruments in the laboratory.

3.3. Effective Domain

Development of attitude is a very important part of the medical course. It would be the constant endeavor of the faculty to develop desirable attitudes in the PG candidate during the course, by personal examples, interaction, and group discussion. The constant watch will be maintained during their work in the clinical laboratories to ensure that this objective is being met. Although there will be no formal evaluation of attitude some aspects of this domain would be covered during the formative evaluation as per the enclosed proforma for continued internal assessment.

Non-cognitive skill (Laboratory Thinking Skills)

At the end of the course, students will also have to develop skills such as:

1. Communication skills in

  • Discussing and presenting lab results or their interpretations with the physicians and others concerned
  • Instruction of microbiology in the lab and classroom
  • Giving case and research presentations at conferences

2. Interpersonal and Professional skills including

  • Working effectively in teams or groups so that the task, results, and analysis are shared
  • Effectively managing time and tasks allowing concurrent and/or overlapping tasks to be done simultaneously, by individuals and within a group
  • Integrating knowledge and making informed judgments about microbiology in everyday life
  • Accessing current and latest literature using electronic resources.

4. Academic Program for M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

4.1. Teaching/Learning Methods

The candidates joining the course must work full time during the whole period of their postgraduate course.  The candidate will be given full-time responsibility and assignments and their participation in all facets of the educational process assured.

Students will be encouraged to become self-directed learners. The teacher will function as a guide and resource person. A formal lecture will be organized to introduce a spectrum of topics in the area of Microbiology. Every effort will be made to provide references for further reading. Students are expected to learn as they work in the laboratory. They will actively participate in all departmental and unit academic activities, i.e. Journal clubs, Seminars, conferences, Case discussions, Clinical meetings, Demonstration, and Clinical Teaching.

Academic activities will be followed as:

4.2 Theory

  1. Tutorials
  2. Group Discussions / Round Table Discussion
  3. Morning Conference
  4. Journal Club
  5. Seminars
  6. Case Presentation
  7. Self Instructed Study (SIS)

4.3 Practical (Skill)

Practical will be imparted by posting the students in various sub-specialties (sections) as detailed in the intrinsic and extrinsic rotation. Students will be actively involved in day to day working of all the sections. He/she will be trained under the guidance of faculties in all the aspects of Clinical Microbiology and applied aspects of laboratory medicine including patient preparation, collection, transport, and preservation of specimens, preparation of requisite reagents, chemicals, media and glassware, processing of specimens and reporting, preservation of etiological agents and their genome, sterilization procedures, bio-safety precautions, maintenance of equipment, record keeping and quality control in Microbiology. The Schedule of rotation in the laboratory for whole 3 years will be given as department of microbiology.

4.4 Rotation Schedule in the Laboratory (for Whole 3 Years; Total posting 35 months) 

4.41 Intrinsic Rotation (33 months)

  1. Bacteriology (Aerobic and Anaerobic) including Mycobacteriology
  2. Virology
  3. Mycology
  4. Parasitology
  5. Serology/Immunology
  6. Molecular microbiology laboratory
  7. Hospital infection surveillance
  8. Media preparation and Sterilization including contaminant disposing

4.42 Extrinsic Rotation (Second Year; 9 weeks)

  1. Water Microbiology: 1 week
  2. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: 2 weeks
    1.   National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL),
    2. Epidemiology Disease Control Division (EDCD)
  3. Zoonotic Diseases, Veterinary Division – Teku: 2 weeks
    1.   Animal Handling
    2. Preparation of Vaccines
  4. Vector-Borne Disease Research and Training Centre (VBDRTC), Hetauda: 2 weeks
  5. Molecular Laboratories: 2 weeks

Students must maintain a record book of all academic activities and the works carried out by them and the training undergone by them which will be checked and assessed by the faculty member.

4.5 Training in Research Methodology

Training in research methodology will be imparted by planning a research project by the student under the guidance of a recognized guide to be executed and submitted in the form of a Thesis. The thesis work will be started from the beginning of the second year and will be continued in the third year. The thesis will be completed and submitted to the examination control division by the student six months before appearing in the third year final University examination.

There will be lectures on Research Methodology Training on the following topics to support the Research Project:

  1. Design and planning of a research project
  2. Literature review
  3. Use of computer and electronic search
  4. Data analysis and interpretation
  5. Preparation and presentation of thesis

4.6 Teaching Experience

Students will be actively involved in the teaching of undergraduate students. He/she will be trained in teaching methods and use of audiovisual aids including preparation of transparencies, power-points, etc.

5. Attendance Requirements

Students will get 15 days’ leave per year.

6. Grading System

As per the rule of IOM, TU.

7. Award of Degree

To award a degree of Master of Science in Clinical Microbiology (M.Sc. Clinical Microbiology)

  1. The student must complete total prescribed study including theory, practical and seminars, compulsory training in a hospital, and thesis work within the prescribed period.
  2. Should obtain pass marks in every subject.

8 Program Coordinator

The program coordinator will be appointed by the Campus chief.

9. Evaluation

The internal assessment will be carried out at the end of each posting and students are required to maintain a logbook of their day-to-day work. Students should successfully complete an internal assessment prior to submission of the form for the final examination.

The final examination will be conducted from the office of the Dean, examination unit IOM, TU as per the rule of IOM, TU.

If a candidate fails, either in theory or practical, then he/she will have to appear in the examination after 6 months and will have to appear in both theory and practical examination of that particular year.

The thesis should be submitted 6 months before the final examination. If a candidate fails to submit a thesis and/or disapproved of his/her thesis as per the rule of IOM, he/she will not be eligible to appear in the final examination conducted by IOM, TU.

The evaluation outline is included in the course structure.

10.  Other Rules

Rest rules and regulations will be as per the rules of IOM, TU.

Course Structure  of M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

First Year

PapersSubjectsMarks Distribution
TheoryPractical Exam
Internal AssessmentFinal ExamTotal
IGeneral Microbiology and Immunology2080100100
IIBacteriology and Virology2080100100
IIIParasitology and Mycology2080100100

Second Year

Bacteriology

PaperSubjectsMarks Distribution
TheoryPractical Exam
Internal AssessmentFinal ExamTotal
IVProcedure and Systemic Bacteriology2080100100

Parasitology

PaperSubjectsMarks Distribution
TheoryPractical Exam
Internal AssessmentFinal ExamTotal
IVProcedure and Systemic Parasitology2080100100

 

In the second year, students are required to select paper IV either Bacteriology or Parasitology as a major subject

Third Year

Major Bacteriology

PaperSubjectsMarks Distribution
TheoryPractical Exam
Internal AssessmentFinal ExamTotal
VAdvance Techniques in Bacteriology2080100100
Thesis (Submission, Presentation, and Oral Examination: (60+20+20)2080100100

Major Parasitology

PaperSubjectsMarks Distribution
TheoryPractical Exam
Internal AssessmentFinal ExamTotal
VAdvance Techniques in Parasitology2080100100
Thesis (Submission, Presentation, and Oral Examination: (60+20+20)100

At the end of the course, students are required to know every aspect of clinical microbiology.

First Year

Program: M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology     Level:     Postgraduate

Subject: General Microbiology and Immunology     Paper: I     Hours: 100

Unit I:   General Microbiology:  50 hrs.

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Explain the historical development of microbiology
  • Describe principles, mechanisms, handling, and applications of different types of Microscopes
  • Explain the safety measures, infection prevention, disposal of biomedical waste, and quality control in Microbiology
  • Describe the basis and different ways of  microbial classifications
  • Describe sterilization and disinfection
  • Describe methods of collection, transportation, storage, and processing of different clinical specimens
  • Explain methods of anaerobiosis
  • Explain the role of antimicrobials, their mechanisms of action and mechanisms of microbial drug resistance, and their detection methods
  • Describe host-parasite relationship
  • Explain principles of different types of stains, staining procedures, and their application
  • Discuss the  uses of different laboratory animals

Contents

  1. History and Pioneers in Microbiology: Theory of abiogenesis, Theory of M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology Curriculum: Introduction, Contents, Major Subjects and Recommended Booksspontaneous generation, Germ theory of disease, Contribution made by Robert Koch including Koch’s postulates, Louis Pasteur, Edward Jenner, Antony Van Leeuwenhoek, and Joseph Lister.
  2. Microscopy: Principle, Mechanism, Handling and application of Simple microscope, Compound microscope, Dark ground microscope, Phase contrast microscope, Interference microscope, Fluorescent microscope, and Electron microscope.
  3. Safety measures and infection prevention: Occurrence of laboratory infections, Tuberculosis and serum hepatitis in laboratory workers, Different routes of infections in the laboratory, Safety organization of the laboratory, Use of different types of biological safety cabinets, Use of disinfectants, Safety officer, and safety code in the laboratory, Classification of the micro-organism based on the risk level.
  4. Microbial Taxonomy; nomenclature and classifications: Taxonomical hierarchies, Hackel’s classification, Three domain classification, Five kingdom classification, Binomial classification, Classification based on genetic relatedness, Biochemical classification, and Serological classification.
  5. Sterilization and disinfection: Introduction, types, mode of action and application of sterilization by physical and chemical method, Testing for the potency of disinfectants including Minimum inhibitory concentration test, Rideal-Walker test, Chick-Martin, and Garrod test, Capacity use dilution test, Stability test, In-use test and test for disinfecting action on surfaces.
  6. Disposal of biomedical waste: Principle, Procedure and Precautions.
  7. Collection, transportation, preservation, storage, and processing of clinical specimens for aerobic and anaerobic culture.
  8. Methods of anaerobiosis: Displacement of oxygen, Absorption of oxygen, Displacement and combustion of oxygen, Biological method, and incorporating reducing agents in culture media.
  9. Quality assurance and quality control in microbiology: Internal quality control, External quality control, External quality assessment, Quality control of culture media, stains and reagents, Calibration of inoculating loop, Standardization of Incubator, centrifuge, Hot air oven, Autoclave, Refrigerator
  10. Accreditation of laboratories: Importance of accreditation and its procedure.
  11. Role of antimicrobials and their mechanism of actions: Antibiotics targeting Cell wall, cell membrane, nucleic acid, protein synthesis, and antimetabolites.
  12. Drug resistance: Types, mechanism, and their detection methods.
  13. Host-parasite relationship: Types of microbial flora, Dis/advantages of microbial flora, Pathogenesis of infection, Microbial virulence factors, Infecting dose, Routes of infection, Types of infectious diseases and their epidemiology.
  14. Stains: Principle, Procedure, result, reporting, interpretation, clinical significance, modification(if there), and reagent preparation of the following- Gram’s stain     – Ziehl-Neelsen stain- Albert stain     – Capsule stain- Flagella stain     – Spore stain
  15. Laboratory animals and ethics: care, handling, bleeding, methods of inoculation, and uses of the mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, hamsters, ferrets, fowls, monkeys, and sheep.

Unit II: Immunology:  50 hrs.

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Define immunity and describe the structure and functions of the immune system
  • Explain antigens, antibodies, and their reactions
  • Describe complement system and mechanism of immune response
  • Describe Hypersensitivity, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, immune tolerance, transplantation immunity, and tumor immunity
  • Describe immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy against infectious diseases
  • Explain the methods of antigen and antibody preparation, their optimization, and applications
  • Explain preparation, preservation, and titration of complement

Contents

  1. Introduction to immunology
  2.  Immunity: Innate and acquired immunity
  3. Structure, functions, and cells involved in the immune system
  4. Antigens: definition, types, properties
  5. Immunoglobulins: structure, types, properties, and functions
  6. Complement system: Introduction, components, pathways, functions, and deficiencies
  7. Immunological reactions: principles, concepts, and their various types
  8. Mechanism of immune response
  9. Hypersensitivity
  10. Immunodeficiency
  11. Autoimmunity
  12. Immune-tolerance
  13. Transplantation immunity
  14. Tumor immunity
  15. Immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy
  16. Advanced immunological techniques:
  • Antigen preparation- Protein antigen, Carbohydrate antigen, synthetic peptide, recombinant protein antigens; Basic concepts, methods, purification, applications
  • Optimization of Antigen and antibody
  • Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies; preparation, applications
  • Preparation, preservation, and titration of complement.

First Year

Program: M.Sc. Clinical Microbiology    Level:   Postgraduate

Subject: Bacteriology and Virology    Paper: II    Hours: 100

Unit I:   General Bacteriology: 50 hrs.

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Describe the anatomy and physiology of bacteria
  • Describe the growth and nutrition of bacteria and their metabolism
  • Explain bacterial toxins and bacteriocins
  • Describe diagnostic culture media
  • Describe the different cultural techniques
  • Describe the methods of isolation and identification of bacteria from clinical specimens
  • Discuss the principle of antibiotic susceptibility testing and their type
  • Describe the different methods of counting and preservation of the bacteria

Contents

Bacterial Anatomy: Structure, functions, and methods of demonstration of the cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, capsule/slime layer, flagella, pili, chromosome, plasmid, RNA, and inclusion granules

  1. Bacterial spores: Types, location, the process of sporulation, methods of demonstration, and clinical significance of bacterial spore
  2. Bacteria with defective cell wall: Development and clinical significance of Protoplast, spheroplast, L-form, and mycoplasma
  3. Growth and nutrition of bacteria: Autotrophs, Phototrophs, and Heterotrophs, Basic cultural requirements, Factors affecting bacterial growth, Bacterial growth curve, Maintenance of organism in logarithmic phase, Generation time, Measurement of bacterial growth
  4. Bacterial metabolism: Methods of generating energy in bacteria, anabolism, and catabolism
  5. Bacterial toxins: Endotoxin, exotoxin and their importance
  6. Bacteriocins including pyocin and colicin: Typing methods and significance of bacteriocin typing
  7. Diagnostic culture media, their types, uses and dis/advantages: liquid media, Semisolid media, Solid media, Basal media, Enriched media, Selective media, Enrichment media, Differential media, Indicator media, Transport media, Sugar media, Biochemical media, Anaerobic media and media for M. tuberculosis culture
  8. Diagnostic methods in Bacteriology; culture: Aerobic culture, Anaerobic culture, Methods of inoculation including streak culture, stroke culture, carpet/lawn culture, stab culture, pour plate culture and sweep plate culture, Aerobic and anaerobic incubation
  9. Diagnostic methods in Bacteriology; isolation and identification:-Phenotypic characteristics including stained and unstained microscopic morphology, cultural characteristics on solid media, colonial morphology for the color, shape, surfaces, size, elevation, edges, opacity, and consistency-Nature of turbidity, nature of deposit formation, pigmentation and pellicle formation in liquid media-Principle and interpretation of the biochemical test including sugar fermentation test, Oxidase test, MRVP test, TSI/KIA reaction, Urease test, Citrate utilization, SIM reaction, Phenylalanine deaminase test, Catalase test, Coagulase test, Nitrate reduction test, Egg yolk reaction, Growth in presence of KCN, Litmus milk test and Decarboxylase test-Serotyping of the isolates, Pathogenicity test-Automated identification system, principle and uses-Molecular characterization of the isolates, PCR and hybridization
  10. Antibiotic susceptibility test: principle, procedure and interpretation of disk diffusion method and dilution method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration by dilution method and E-test, determination of minimum bactericidal concentration, breakpoint sensitivity, the principle of antibiotic susceptibility testing by an automated system
  11. Counting of bacteria: viable count, total count
  12. Preservation of bacteria: lyophilization, repeated subcultivation, use of semisolid media, use of agar slant

Unit II:   Virology: 50 hrs

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Explain the general properties of viruses and their different types of classification systems
  • Describe properties, epidemiology, and methods of isolation, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures of viral infections
  • Explain immunology of viral infections, interferons, and antiviral drugs
  • Explain different methods for diagnosis of viral diseases
  • Describe bacteriophage, its replication, and typing methods

Contents:

  1. General properties of viruses; morphology, structure, replication
  2. Classification of the virus on a different basis: nucleic acid, capsid symmetry, envelope, host specificity, and symptomatology
  3. Mechanisms of viral pathogenesis
  4. Epidemiology of viral infections
  5. Immunology of viral infections
  6. Interferons and antiviral drugs
  7. Laboratory diagnosis of viral diseases: the principle of diagnosis, specimen collection, transportation, storage and processing, antigen detection, a direct demonstration by electron microscopy, the study of cytopathic effects, virus isolation principle and techniques, serological examination and interpretation
  8. Bacteriophages: Morphology, life cycle, typing methods, and its significance
  9. Properties, epidemiology, methods of isolation, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures of following viral infections: Poxviruses, Herpes viruses, Adenoviruses, Hepatitis viruses, Respiratory viruses: Influenza, Parainfluenzae, corona, and others, Arboviruses, Enteroviruses, Neuroviruses; Rabies virus, poliovirus, Oncogenic viruses, Teratogenic viruses, Prion diseases, Viruses of gastroenteritis, Retroviruses; HIV

First Year

Program: M.Sc. Clinical Microbiology        Level:     Postgraduate

Subject: Parasitology and Mycology        Paper: III         Hours: 100

Unit I:    Parasitology:     50 hrs

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Explain general characteristics and classification of parasites
  • Explain different methods of collection, transportation, preservation, processing of specimens, and laboratory diagnosis of parasitic infections
  • Review the common medically important parasites prevalent in Nepal
  • Explain different antiparasitic agents

Contents

  1. Morphology and classification of parasites
  2. General characteristics of Protozoa, Helminthes including trematodes/cestodes
  3. Morphology, life cycle, and laboratory diagnosis of the intestinal, blood, and tissue parasites
  4. Collection, transportation, preservation, and processing of specimens for parasitic diseases
  5. Protozoan parasites of medical importance: Free-living amoeba, Giardia, Trichomonas, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Sarcocystis, Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, Isospora, Babesia, Balantidium
  6. Helminthology of medical importance including those belonging to class Cestoda, Trematoda, and Nematoda
  7. Antiparasitic agents, their mechanism of action, and drug-resistant mechanism in parasites

Unit II: MycologY: 50 hrs.

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Explain general characteristics, classification, morphology, and reproduction of fungi
  • Explain different types of fungal culture media
  • Describe the methods of collection, transportation, storage, and processing of different clinical samples for diagnosis of fungal diseases
  • Explain antifungal agents and antifungal susceptibility testing
  • Explain immunology of fungal diseases
  • Describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures of medically important fungi
  • Explain common laboratory fungal contaminants, mycotoxicosis, and mycetismus

Contents

  1. General characteristics and classification of fungi
  2. Morphology and reproduction
  3. Fungal culture media and types
  4. Collection, transportation, storage, and processing of different specimens for diagnosis of fungal diseases
  5. Antifungal agents and antifungal susceptibility testing
  6. Pathogenesis of fungal infections
  7. Immunology of fungal diseases
  8. Laboratory diagnosis of fungal diseases
  9. Introduction, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures of the following infection:
  • -Superficial cutaneous mycoses: Dermatophytes, Mallassezia infections
  • Subcutaneous mycoses – Mycetoma
  • Systemic mycoses; Histoplasmosis, Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Paracoccidioidomycosis
  • Opportunistic mycoses; Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis, Pneumocystosis, Penicillosis, Aspergillosis, Zygomycosis
  • Dimorphic fungiPhaeoid fungi
  • Oculomycoses
  • Otomycoses
  • Allergic fungal diseases
  • Fungal sinusitis
  • Miscellaneous mycoses: Rhinosporidiosis, Pythiosis Insidiosis, Protothecosis, and Algal diseases

10. Mycotoxicosis and Mycetismus

11. Common laboratory contaminant fungi

Second Year

Program: M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology    Level: Postgraduate

Subject: Procedure and Systemic Bacteriology   Paper: IV   Hours: 100

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Describe the methods of specimen collection, transportation, preservation, processing, isolation, and identification of bacteria
  • Describe properties, epidemiology, methods of isolation, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures of medically important bacteria.
  • Discuss the formation of biofilm

Contents

  1. Collection, transportation, preservation, and processing of specimens for bacterial diseases
  2. Isolation and identification of bacteria
  3. Properties, epidemiology, methods of isolation, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures of following bacterial infections:
  • Staphylococcus, micrococcus, and other cluster forming cocci
  • Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and other catalase-negative gram-positive cocci
  • Corynebacterium and other non-spore-forming gram-positive rods
  • Aerobic gram-positive bacilli; Bacillus
  • Neisseria spp and Moraxella catarrhalis
  • Haemophilus and  HACEK group
  • Legionella
  • Listeria
  • Bordetella
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Vibrio, Aeromonas and Campylobacter spp
  • Helicobacter
  • Brucella
  • Gardnerella
  • Non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli; Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Burkholderia, Alcaligens, Achromobacter, and others
  • Spirochaetes
  • Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other non-tuberculous Mycobacteria
  • Actinomycetes
  • Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and Coxiella
  • Pasteurella, Francisella
  • Anaerobes; Spore forming and non-spore-forming cocci and bacilli: Clostridium, Bacteroids, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Lactobacilli, Leptotrichia, Bifidobacterium, Mobilincus, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Propionibacterium, and others

4. Biofilms formation and its significance in microorganism

Second Year

Program: M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology    Level: Postgraduate

Subject: Procedure and Systemic Parasitology    Paper: IV    Hours: 100

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Describe the history, importance, immunity, and control of medically important parasites
  • Describe properties, epidemiology, and methods of isolation, life cycle, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures of medically important parasite
  • Describe the methods of specimen collection, transportation, preservation, processing, isolation, and identification of different types of parasites

Contents

  1. Introduction
  • History of human parasites
  • Importance of parasitology and parasites
  • Epidemiology of parasitic infections
  • Immunology and immunopathology of Human parasitic infections
  • Control of parasites, parasitic infection and parasitic diseases
  • Medical ecology of parasitic disease
  • Principles of antiparasitic chemotherapy and drug resistance in parasites

2. Epidemiology, lifecycle, pathophysiology, laboratory diagnosis, and preventive measures of the following:

  • Blood parasites; Malaria parasites, Leishmania donovani, Filarial worms, Trypanosomes, Babesia,
  • Tissue parasites: Paragonimus westermanii, Schistosomes, Trichinella
  • Intestinal protozoal parasites; Entamoeba, Iodamoeba, dientamoeba, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas, Balantidium, Coccidian parasites (Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, Cyclospora, Isospora),  Toxoplasma
  • Helminthes
    • Cestodes: Diphyllobothrium, Taenia, Echinococcus, Hymenolepis, Dipyllidium, Multiceps
    • Trematodes: Fasciola, Fasciolopsis,Opisthorchis
    • Nematodes: Ancylostoma, Ascaris, Trichuris, Enterobius, Strongyloides

3. Entomology: common arthropods and other vectors viz. mosquito, sandfly, ticks, mites, cyclops, louse

Third Year

Program: M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology    Level: Postgraduate

Subject: Advanced Techniques in Bacteriology   Paper: V   Hours: 100

Unit I:  Molecular Microbiology (Bacteriology) and Molecular Technique: 60 hrs

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Describe DNA, plasmid DNA, and its replication
  • Describe RNA, its types, and functions
  • Describe the transfer of genetic material
  • Describe the different types of nucleases and their uses
  • Describe gene, genetic code, transcription, and translation
  • Describe gene regulation and mutation
  • Describe the DNA damage and repair mechanism
  • Describe the recombinant DNA technology and gene cloning
  • Explain the use of gene library, use of the internet,  public domain database for nucleic acid and protein sequences
  • Describe different  molecular techniques, whole-genome analysis, and gene sequencing

Contents

  1. Microbial Genetics
  • DNA: structure, function, replication (general principles, various modes, enzymes involved, their properties and functions)
  • Plasmid DNA; Structure, function, replication
  • Gene transfer; Conjugation, transduction, transformation, transposition, and transfection
  • RNA: Structure of different RNAs and their functions, synthesis, inhibitors of RNA synthesis
  • Nucleases; Introduction, types, and functions
  • Transcription- general principles, basic apparatus, type and functions of RNA polymerase, Steps- initiation, elongation, and termination
  • Gene and Genetic code and their features
  • Protein synthesis/translation; initiation, elongation and termination and role of various factors
  • Inhibitors of protein synthesis
  • Gene expression and regulation- Operan concept (Lac, Ara, His and Trp) repression, induction and inducers, co-repressor
  • Mutation- definition, types, detection, and mutagens
  • DNA damage and repair; Types of DNA damage, DNA repair Pathways/types
  • Recombinant DNA technology: Principle, concepts and applications
  • Cloning; Principle, general concepts
  • Gene library- cDNA and genomic library
  • Use of Internet, Public domain databases for nucleic acid and protein sequences(EMBL, GeneBank), databases for protein structures(PDB)

2. Molecular Techniques

  • Isolation of plasmids, DNA, RNA, Proteins
  • Introduction, Principle, types, methods, advantages/disadvantages, and application of
  • Electrophoresis
  • Chromatography
  • Blot techniques
  • Hybridization techniques
  • Ribotyping
  • Spoligotyping
  • RFLP
  • RAPD
  • PCR
  • LCR
  • Microarray; DNA and Protein Microarray

3. Whole-genome analysis and gene sequencing

  • Conventional methods
  • Automated methods

Unit II: Public Health Microbiology:  40 hrs.     

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Describe the epidemiology, etiological agents, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures of infectious diseases by organ systems
  • Explain outbreak investigations, laboratory testing procedures, and preventive measures of foodborne, waterborne, airborne, vector-borne diseases
  • Describe Epidemiological markers, Biological warfare, Nosocomial, and community-acquired infections
  • Describe rapid diagnostic methods and automation in diagnostic Microbiology
  • Describe microbiology of food, water, milk, and air
  • Describe different water purification system

Contents                                                           

  1. Epidemiology of infectious diseases
  2. Infectious diseases by organ systems- Introduction, epidemiology, etiological agents, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures
  3. Microbial infections and intoxications: Outbreak investigations, laboratory testing procedures and preventive measures: foodborne, waterborne, airborne, vector-borne diseases
  4. Biological warfare
  5. Epidemiological markers
  6. Microbiology of  Food, Water, Milk, and Air
  7. The different water purification system
  8. Nosocomial and community-acquired infections
  9. Rapid diagnostic methods for microbial diseases
  10. Automation in diagnostic Microbiology

Third-year

Program: M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology      Level:  Postgraduate

Subject: Advanced Techniques in Parasitology     Paper: V    Hours: 100

Unit I: Molecular Microbiology (Parasitology) and Molecular Techniques:     60 hrs

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Describe the genomics of parasites including RNA processing, transcription, and post-transcriptional regulation
  • Describe the antigenic variation and genomic approach to determine the virulence of parasites
  • Describe the biochemistry and cell biology of protozoa and helminths
  • Explain the mechanism of parasitic drug resistance and the use of molecular parasitology in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases
  • Describe different  molecular techniques, whole-genome analysis, and gene sequencing

Contents

Unit I:  Molecular Microbiology (Parasitology) and Molecular Technique60 hrs

  1. Parasitic genomics
  2. RNA processing in parasitic organisms: trans-splicing and RNA editing
  3. Transcription
  4. Post-transcriptional regulation
  5. Antigenic variation in African trypanosomiasis and malaria
  6. Genetic and genomic approaches to the analysis of Leishmania virulence
  7. Biochemistry and cell biology: protozoa
  • Energy metabolism: anaerobic protozoa, aerobic protists-trypanosmatidae, energy metabolism in Apicomplexa
  • Amino acid and protein metabolism
  • Purine and pyrimidine transport and metabolism
  • Trypanosomatid surface and secreted carbohydrates
  • Intracellular signaling
  • Plastids, mitochondria, and hydrogenosomes

8. Biochemistry and cell biology: Helminthes

  • Helminth surfaces: structural, molecular, and functional properties
  • Carbohydrate and energy metabolism in parasitic helminths
  • Neurotransmitter

9. Medical applications

  • Drug resistance in parasites
  • The medical implication of molecular parasitology in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases

10.  Isolation of plasmids, DNA, RNA, Proteins

11. Introduction, Principle, types, methods, advantages/disadvantages and application of

  • Electrophoresis
  • Chromatography
  • Blot techniques
  • Hybridization techniques
  • Ribotyping
  • Spoligotyping
  • RFLP
  • RAPD
  • PCR
  • LCR
  • Microarray; DNA and Protein Microarray

12. Whole-genome analysis and gene sequencing

  • Conventional and Automated methods 

Unit II: Public Health Microbiology: 40 hrs.     

Specific Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Describe the epidemiology, etiological agents, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures of infectious diseases by organ systems
  • Explain outbreak investigations, laboratory testing procedures, and preventive measures of foodborne, waterborne, airborne, vector-borne diseases
  • Describe Epidemiological markers, Biological warfare, Nosocomial, and community-acquired infections
  • Describe rapid diagnostic methods and automation in diagnostic Microbiology
  • Describe microbiology of food, water, milk, and air
  • Describe different water purification system

Contents                                                           

  1. Epidemiology of infectious diseases
  2. Infectious diseases by organ systems- Introduction, epidemiology, etiological agents, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures
  3. Microbial infections and intoxications: Outbreak investigations, laboratory testing procedures and preventive measures: foodborne, waterborne, airborne, vector-borne diseases
  4. Biological warfare
  5. Epidemiological markers
  6. Microbiology of  Food, Water, Milk, and Air
  7. The different water purification system
  8. Nosocomial and community-acquired infections
  9. Rapid diagnostic methods for microbial diseases
  10. Automation in diagnostic Microbiology

Practical (Skills) for M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

Bacteriology

At the end of the course, students must be able to perform

  1. Collection/transportation/preservation of specimens for microbiological investigations.
  2. Preparation, examination, and interpretation of direct smears from clinical specimens.
  3. Plating of clinical specimens on media for isolation, purification, identification, and quantitation purposes
  4. Preparation of stains viz. Gram, Albert’s, capsules, spores, Zeihl Neelsen (Z-N), silver impregnation stain and special stains for capsules and spore, etc.
  5. Preparation and pouring of media like Nutrient agar, Blood agar, MacConkey agar, sugars, serum sugars, Kigler iron agar, Robertson’s cooked meat broth, Lowenstein Jensen’s medium, Sabouraud’s dextrose agar, etc.
  6. Preparation of reagents- oxidase, Kovac, etc.
  7. Quality control of media, reagents, etc.
  8. Operation of autoclave, hot air oven, distillation plant, filters like Seitz, and membrane filters.
  9. Care and operation of microscopes
  10. Washing and sterilization of glassware (plugging and packing)
  11. Care and maintenance of common laboratory equipment like water bath, centrifuge, refrigerators, incubators, etc.
  12. Aseptic practices in laboratory and safety precautions
  13. Sterility tests
  14. Identification of bacteria of medical importance up to species level (except anaerobes which could be up to generic level).
  15. Techniques of anaerobiosis
  16. Test for Motility: hanging drop, Cragie’s tube, dark ground microscopy for spirochaetes.
  17. In-vitro toxigenicity tests- Elek test, Nagler’s reaction
  18. Special tests-Bile solubility, chick cell agglutination, sheep cell hemolysis, niacin and catalase tests for Mycobacterium, satellitism, CAMP test, catalase, slide, and tube agglutination tests.
  19. Preparation of antibiotic discs; performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing, e.g. Kirby-Bauer, Stoke’s method, Estimation of Minimal inhibitory/Bactericidal concentrations by tube/plate dilution methods and E-test.
  20. Tests for drug resistance by bacteria; ESBL, AmpC, MBL, MRSA
  21. Inoculation of infective material by different routes in animals
  22. Bleeding techniques of animals including sheep
  23. Performance of autopsy on animals and disposal of animals
  24. Animal pathogenicity/toxigenicity test for C. diphtheriae, C. tetani, S. pneumoniae, S. tphimurium, K. pneumoniae
  25. Testing of disinfectants- phenol coefficient and “in use” tests.
  26. Care and breeding of laboratory animals viz. mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, etc.
  27. Quantitative analysis of urine by pour plate method and semi-quantitative analysis by standard loop tests for finding significant bacteriuria
  28. Disposal of contaminated material like cultures
  29. Disposal of infectious waste
  30. Bacteriological tests for water, air, and milk
  31. Maintenance and preservation of bacterial cultures

At the end of the course, students are desirable to perform

  1. Conjugation experiments for drug resistance
  2. Serum antibiotic assays e.g. gentamicin
  3. Phage typing for Staphylococci, S. typhi
  4. Bacteriocin typing
  5. Enterotoxigenicity tests like rabbit ileal loop, intragastric inoculation of infant mouse, Sereny’s test
  6. Serological grouping of Streptococci
  7. Mouse footpad test for M. leprae
  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests for Mycobacteria
  9. Molecular typing
  10. Special staining techniques for Mycoplasma, Treponemes, Gardnerella.

Immunology

At the end of the course, students must be able to perform

  1. Collection of blood by venepuncture, separation of serum, and preservation of serum for short and long periods
  2. Preparation of antigens from bacteria or tissues like Widal, Weil Felix, VDRL, SLO, and group-specific polysaccharide of Streptococci, etc and their standardization
  3. Raising of antisera in laboratory animals
  4. Performance of serological tests viz. Widal, Brucella tube agglutination, indirect hemagglutination, VDRL,ASO, Rose Waaler test, IFA
  5. Immunodiffusion in gel(Ouchterlony), counter-immunoelectrophoresis
  6. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  7. Latex agglutination tests
  8. Preparation and preservation of complement and complement titration
  9. Flow cytometry

At the end of the course, students are desirable to perform

  1. Radial immunodiffusion for estimation of serum immunoglobulins
  2. Immunoelectrophoresis
  3. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis
  4. Neutrophil phagocytosis
  5. Immunoblotting
  6. Performance of serological tests viz. Weil Felix, cold agglutination, Paul Bunnel test
  7. Leukocyte migration test
  8. T- cell resetting
  9. Separation of lymphocytes by centrifugation, gravity sedimentation

Mycology 

At the end of the course, students must be able to perform

  1. Collection and transport of specimens
  2. Processing of samples for microscopy and culture
  3. Direct examination of specimens by KOH, Gram’s, Acid-fast, Giemsa, Lactophenol cotton blue, and special fungal stains
  4. Examination of histopathology slides for fungal infections
  5. Isolation and identification of medically important fungi and common laboratory contaminants
  6. Special techniques like Wood’s lamp examination, hair baiting, hair perforation, paraffin baiting, and slide culture
  7. Maintenance of stock culture
  8. Animal pathogenicity tests viz. intravenous, intracerebral, and intraperitoneal inoculation of mice for fungal pathogenicity study

At the end of the course, students are desirable to perform

  1. Antigen preparation- viz. from Candida, Aspergillus, Histoplasma, Sporothrix
  2. Antibody detection in candidiasis, aspergillosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, Cryptococcosis, zygomycosis, coccidioidomycosis
  3. Antigen detection in cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, candidiasis
  4. Skin test using aspergellin, candidin, histoplasmin, sporotrichin
  5. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes
  6. Calcofluor staining and examination under a fluorescent microscope

Parasitology

At the end of the course, students must be able to perform

  1. Collection and transport of specimens for diagnosis of parasitic diseases
  2. Examination of feces for parasite ova and cysts etc. by direct and concentration methods( salt floatation and formal-ether methods)
  3. Egg counting techniques for helminths, micrometry, and mounting of slides
  4. Examination of blood for protozoa and helminths by wet mount, thick and thin stained smears
  5. Examination of blood for microfilariae including concentration techniques
  6. Examination of other specimens e.g. Urine, CSF, Bone marrow, etc. for parasites
  7. Histopathology sections examination and identification of parasites
  8. Preparation and performance of stains- Leishman, Giemsa, Lugol’s Iodine
  9. Micrometry
  10. Identification of medically important adult worms
  11. Preparation of media- NIH, NNN
  12. Copro-culture for larvae of hookworms
  13. Identification of common arthropods and other vectors viz. mosquito, sandfly, ticks, mites, Cyclops
  14. Preservation of parasites- mounting, fixing, staining

At the end of the course, students are desirable to perform

  1. Maintenance of parasites in the laboratory either in vivo in animals or by in-vitro cultures
  2. Permanent staining techniques like iron hematoxylin
  3. QBC for malaria and filarial
  4. In-vitro culture of parasites like Entamoeba, Leishmania, P. falciparum, Acanthamoeba, etc.
  5. Antigen preparation- viz. Entamoeba, filarial, Toxoplasma, hydatid for serological tests, for RIA, ELISA, and for skin tests like Casoni’s.

Virology

At the end of the course, students must be able to perform

  1. Preparation of glassware for tissue cultures( washing, sterilization)
  2. Preparation of buffers like PBS, Hank’s
  3. Preparation of clinical specimens for isolation of viruses
  4. Collection, transportation, and preservation of specimens for viruses
  5. Recognition of CPE producing viruses
  6. Serological tests- ELISA for HIV and HBsAg, Haemagglutination inhibition test for Influenza, Measles
  7. Chick Embryo techniques- inoculation and harvesting
  8. Handling of mice, rats, and guinea pigs for collection of blood, pathogenicity tests
  9. Special staining procedure for viruses.

At the end of the course, students are desirable to perform

  1. Electron microscopy for viruses- TEM, SEM
  2. Preservation of viruses
  3. Preparation of viral antigens
  4. Molecular techniques in virology
  5. Preparation of monkey cells ( primary) and maintenance of continuous cell lines by subculture, preservation in -700C, and liquid nitrogen
  6. Performance of haemadsorption test for Parainfluenza, Haemagglutination of Influenza, Immunofluorescence,  Neutralisation for Enteroviruses and Respiratory viruses, Identification tests on tissue cultures and supernatants
  7. Serological tests; haemadsorption for Parainfluenza

Public Health Microbiology in M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

At the end of the course, students are able to perform

  1.   Microorganisms of water by:
  • Plate count
  • Detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli
    • Presumptive coliform count (MPN)
    • Differential coliform test
  • Detection fecal Streptococci
  • Examination for Cl. Perfringens
  • Test pathogenic bacteria

2. Microorganisms of milk by:

  • Viable count
  • Test for coliform bacilli
  • Examination specific pathogens
    • Tubercle bacilli
    • Brucella
    • Other microorganisms

3. Microorganisms of air by:

  • Bacteriological examination of air and dust
  • Fungal examination air

4.   Examination of food poisoning causing organisms

Laboratory Thinking Skills after M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

At the end of the course, students will also have to develop skills such as:

  1. Communication skills in
  • Discussing and presenting lab results or their interpretations with the physicians and others concerned
  • Instruction of microbiology in the lab and classroom
  • Giving case and research presentations at conferences

2. Interpersonal and Professional skills including

  • Working effectively in teams or groups so that the task, results, and analysis are shared
  • Effectively managing time and tasks allowing concurrent and/or overlapping tasks to be done simultaneously, by individuals and within a group
  • Integrating knowledge and making informed judgments about microbiology in everyday life
  • Accessing current and latest literature using electronic resources.

Recommended Books for M. Sc. Clinical Microbiology

  1. A Text-Book of Medical Mycology. Editor: Jagdish Chander.  Publication Mehata, India.
  2. Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine. Editor: Victor Lorian, 4th ed, Publication Williams and Wilkins.
  3. Atlas of Human Parasitology, Lawrence R Ash, Thomas C. Orihel, 3rd ed, Publisher ASCP Press, Chicago.
  4. Atlas of Infectious Diseases. Vol I&II. Editor: Mannel Fakety
  5. Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology. Editors: Bettey A. Forbes, Daniel F. Sahm & Alice S. Weissfeld, 12th ed 2007, Publisher Elsevier.
  6. Basic Clinical immunology. Editors: Fudenberg, Stites, Caldwell, Weils.
  7. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Vol. I & II. Editors: George M. Garrity, David R. Boone & Richard W. Castenholz, 2nd ed 2001, Publisher Springer, USA.
  8. Clinical Microbiology Procedure Handbook Vol. I & II, Chief in editor H.D. Isenberg, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, Publisher ASM (American Society for Microbiology), Washington DC.
  9. Colour Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. Editors: Koneman E.W., Allen D.D., Dowell V.R. Jr, and Sommers H.M.
  10. Cowan & Steel’s Manual for identification of Medical Bacteria. Editors: G.I. Barron & R.K. Felthani, 3rd ed 1993, Publisher Cambridge University press.
  11. Fields Virology Vol I & II, Editor in Chief: David M. Knipe & Peter M. Howley,  Asso editors: Diane E. Griffin, Robert A. Lamb, Malcolm A. Martin, Bernard Roizman & Stephen E. Straus, 5th ed 2007, Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Wolters Kluwer Health, USA.
  12. Human Molecular Genetics. Editors: Tom Strachan & Andrew Read, 4th ed 2011, Publisher Garland Science, USA.
  13. Immunology. Editors: David Male, Jonathan Brostoff, David B. Roth & Ivan Roitt, 7th ed 2006, Publisher Elsevier.
  14. Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology. Editors: Geo. F. Brook, Janet S. Butel & Stephen A. Morse, 21st ed 1998, Publisher Appleton & Lance, Co Stamford Connecticut.
  15. Mackie and Mc Cartney Practical Medical Microbiology. Editors: J.G. Colle, A.G. Fraser, B.P. Marmion, A. Simmous, 4th ed, Publisher Churchill Living Stone, New York, Melborne, Sans Franscisco 1996.
  16. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Editors: P.R. Murray, E. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, F. C. Tenover and R. H. Yolken, 7th ed 2005, Publisher ASM, USA.
  17. Medical Microbiology, vol I & II, Editors: Greenwood, Slack, and Pleutherer.
  18. Medical Mycology. Editors:  Emmons and Binford, 2nd ed 1970, Publisher Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
  19. Medical Parasitology, Markell, Joh Krotoski, 8th ed, Publisher WB Saunders Co. Philadelphia, London, Paris, Tokyo.
  20. Microbiology: A human perspective. Editors: E.W. Nester, D. G. Anderson, C. E. Roberts  Jr, 4th ed 2004, Publisher Mc Graw Hill.
  21. Molecular Biology. Editor: David Freifelder, 2nd ed, Publisher Jones and Bartlett Inc.
  22. Molecular Medical Parasitology. Editors: J. Joseph Marr, Timothy W. Nilsen, and Richard W. Komuniecki, Publisher Academic Press, an imprint of Elsevier Science.
  23. Parasitology: Protozoology & Helminthology, K.D. Chatterjee, 20th ed 1998, Calcutta, India.
  24. Practical Laboratory Mycology. Editors: Koneman E.W. and G.D. Roberts, 3rd ed 1985, Publisher Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.
  25. Principle and practice of infectious diseases. Vol I&II, Editors: Mandell, Douglas & Bennetts.
  26. Rippon’s JW: Medical Microbiology. The pathogenic fungi and the Pathogenic Actinomycetes. 3rd ed 1988 Publisher WB Saunder co, Philadelphia.
  27. Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. Editors: Connie R. Mahon, Donald G. Lehman & George Manuselis, 3rd edition2007, Publisher Elsevier.
  28. The UFAW Handbook on the care and management of laboratory animals. Editors: Trevor B. Poole, 6th ed, Publication Longman Science and Technical, Longman group U.K.
  29. ]Topley & Wilsons’ Principle of Bacteriology, Virology, and immunology Vol I, II, III, IV & V. Editors: M.T. Parker & L.H. Collier, 8th ed 1990, Publisher Edward Arnold publication, London.

 

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