PPE: Introduction,Types, Donning and Doffing Procedure and Uses
Introduction of PPE
PPE stands for personal protective equipment. Definition of PPE according to OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)-“PPE is specialized clothing or equipment, worn by an employee for protection against infectious materials.” It includes gloves, gowns or aprons, shoe covers, head covers, masks, respirators, eye protection, face shields, and goggles. Its donning means putting on and PPE doffing means taking off or removing PPE.PPE donning and doffing is very important method in health care set up for health care workers to save yourself and surrounding to save from infectious materials.
Types of PPE
All of the personal protective equipment listed here prevent contact with the infectious agent, or body fluid that may contain the infectious agent ( bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites) , by creating a barrier between the worker and the infectious material. Gloves, protect the hands, gowns or aprons protect the skin and clothing, masks and respirators protect the mouth and nose, goggles protect the eyes, and face shields protect the entire face. The respirator, has been designed to also protect the respiratory tract from airborne transmission of infectious agents e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, SARS-COV-2, etc. Decisions regarding when and which type of personal protective equipment should be worn are determined by CDC recommendations for Standard Precautions and Expanded Isolation Precautions.
Previously called Universal Precautions
Assumes blood and body fluid of a patient could be infectious
Recommends personal protective equipment and other infection control practices to prevent transmission in any healthcare setting
Decisions about personal protective equipment use determined by type of clinical interaction with patient
PPE for Standard Precautions (1)
Gloves – Use when touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, contaminated items; for touching mucus membranes and non-intact skin
Gowns – Use during procedures and patient care activities when contact of clothing/exposed skin with blood/body fluids, secretions, or excretions is anticipated
Personal protective equipment for Standard Precautions (2)
Mask and goggles or a face shield – Use during patient care activities likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretion
Personal protective equipment for Expanded Precautions
Suctioning oral secretions? -Gloves and mask/goggles or a face shield sometimes gown
Transporting a patient in a wheel chair?-Generally none required
Responding to an emergency where blood is spurting?- Gloves, fluid-resistant gown, mask/goggles or a face shield
Drawing blood from a vein?-Gloves
Cleaning an incontinent patient with diarrhea?-Gloves with or without gown
Irrigating a wound?-Gloves, gown, mask/goggles or a face shield
Taking vital signs?-Generally none
Where to Remove personal protective equipment
At doorway, before leaving patient room or in anteroom
Remove respirator outside room, after door has been closed
Ensure that hand hygiene facilities are available at the point needed, e.g., sink or alcohol-based hand rub
Donning and Doffing Procedure
Sequence for Donning PPE
Mask or respirator
Goggles or face shield
Gloves Note: Combination of PPE will affect sequence and thus be practical.
Sequence for taking off PPE
Face shield or goggles
Mask or respirator
It is available to protect you from exposure to infectious agents in the healthcare workplace.
Gloves protect hands.
Gowns or aprons protect skin and/or clothing.
Masks and respirators protect mouth/nose.
Respirators protect respiratory tract from airborne infectious agents.
Goggles protect eyes.
Face shields protect face, mouth, nose, and eyes.
Don personal protective equipment before contact with the patient, generally
before entering the room
-Use carefully – don’t spread contamination
– Remove and discard carefully, either at the doorway or immediately outside patient room; remove respirator outside room
– Immediately perform hand hygiene
Know what type of PPE is necessary for the duties you perform and use it correctly.
How to Safely Use personal protective equipment
Keep gloved hands away from face-Avoid touching or adjusting other PPE-Remove gloves if they become torn; perform hand hygiene before donning new gloves-Limit surfaces and items touched.