VDRL test: Principle, Procedure, Result Interpretation and Limitations

VDRL test Introduction of VDRL test VDRL test  stands for Veneral disease research laboratory. The laboratory  was renamed to the Treponemal Pathogenesis and Immunology Branch of the United States Public Health Service.The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is one of two variations of microflocculation procedures used for serological testing of syphilis. Flocculation testing is based on antibody detection with the interaction of soluble antigen with an antibody that results in a precipitate formation of fine particles.The VDRL can be used...

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Widal test: Introduction, procedure, result Interpretation and limitations

Widal test  Introduction of Widal test Widal test is an agglutination test employed in the serological diagnosis of enteric fever. It also applicable in  febrile agglutinins tests. The test is named after Georges Fernand Isidore Widal, a French physician and bacteriologist. Salmonella antibody starts appearing in the serum at the end of first week and rises sharply during the third week of enteric fever. This test measures agglutinating antibody levels against O and H antigens. Principle of WIDAL...

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Coronavirus: Introduction, mode of transmission, symptoms, treatment and prevention

coronavirus Introduction Coronavirus is a group of spherical or pleomorphic medium sized (100-150 nm), enveloped RNA virus, containing pectal or club shaped peplomers on the surface as shown above picture. Their name  coronavirus  is due to crown shape, corona meaning crown. These viruses belong to family Coronaviridiae and there are four genera Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. These viruses infect mammals and birds causing diseases of the respiratory tract , gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys and nervous system...

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